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Sunday, April 8, 2012

YOGYAKARTA


Yogyakarta  is a city in the Yogyakarta Special Region on Java in Indonesia. It is renowned as a centre of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows. Yogyakarta was the Indonesian capital during the Indonesian National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. One of the districts in Yogyakarta, Kotagede, was the capital of Mataram Sultanate between 1575-1640.
Although missing from the historical record since the migration of the capital of Medang kingdom in the 10th century to the eastern Java, the valley area in the south of Mount Merapi since the 15th century still inhabited by many people and perhaps become part of the region called "Pengging"
Kotagede was the capital of Mataram Sultanate now part of districts in Yogyakarta. The palace of the founder of Mataram Sultanate, Panembahan Senopati established in scene of part of Alas Mentaok. After a two times move it Capital, (Palace of Pleret and Place of Kerta, both located in Bantul Regency), The capital of Mataram Sultanate moved to Kartasura.
The City of Jogjakarta and the Yogyakarta Sultanate was established as a result of a "Gianti war treaty" (Perjanjian Gianti) by HRH Prince Mangkubumi, who later become HRH Sultan Hamengkubuwono I. Officially, the creation of Yogyakarta Sultanate is dated to October 7, 1756 as a result of civil war among the bloodline of The Mataram Sultanate. The civil war was fought against Hamengkubuwono's and his elder brother, HRH Sunan Pakubuwono II. This civil war marked the end of the Mataram Sultanate and resulted in the birth of the Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Surakarta Sunanate.
The root of the civil war started when Sunan Pakubuwono II agreed to cooperate with the Dutch colonial government and submit to foreign (western) powers. His younger brother, HRH Prince Mangkumbumi (HRH Sultan Hamengkubuwono) stood against the concept, due to concern that his people would become slaves under Dutch rule. The Javanese slaves were used to work for businesses owned by V.O.C. and the Dutch Colonial Government and exported to present day Suriname in South America. In the Netherlands itself, some of the Dutch people stood against the policy of their home government.
Prince Mangkubumi fought until the defeat of the Pakubuwono forces and declared sovereignty in the Kingdom of Jogjakarta south of the original Kingdom of Mataram. Because of this historical act of bravery and sacrifice, Jogjakarta is given Special Administrative Region (SAR) status, making the Province of Jogjakarta the only province headed by a monarchy.

The area of the city of Yogyakarta is 32.5 km². While the city spreads in all directions from the kraton (the Sultan's palace), the core of the modern city is to the north, centring around Dutch colonial-era buildings and the commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows of pavement vendors and nearby market and malls, is the primary shopping street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north, is a shopping district more frequented by locals. At the southern end of Malioboro, on the east side is the large local market of Beringharjo, not far from Fort Vredeburg a restored Dutch fort.
At Yogyakarta's centre is the kraton, or Sultan's palace. Surrounding the kraton is a densely populated residential neighbourhood that occupies land that was formerly the Sultan's sole domain. Evidence of this former use remains in the form of old walls and the ruined Taman Sari, built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer used by the sultan, the garden had been largely abandoned. For a time, it was used for housing by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in 2004, and an effort to renew the neighbourhood around the kraton has begun. The site is a developing tourist attraction.
Nearby to the city of Yogyakarta is Mount Merapi. The northern outskirts of the city run up to the southern slopes of the mountain in Sleman Regency (Indonesian language–Kabupaten). Gunung Merapi (literally Mountain of Fire in Indonesian/Javanese), is an active Stratavolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. The volcano last erupted in November 2010.
Yogyakarta has strong communities in:
Daren kidul Dono Kerto Turi
Yogyakarta is well-known as home of Gadjah Mada University, one of Indonesia's most prominent state universities. The others public university in Yogyakarta are Yogyakarta State University, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University, Indonesia Arts Institute. This city also houses several well known private universities such as Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Islamic University of Indonesia, Atma Jaya University and Sanata Dharma University.
Due to the importance of Yogyakarta during the war of independence from the Dutch, there are numerous memorials and museums. Yogya Kembali, and Fort Vredeburg are two major museums of about 11 named in the city.
To the east of the town centre is a large air-force museum; as Indonesia was for a period in the Soviet sphere of influence this museum contains a number of vintage Russian aircraft not widely available for inspection in the NATO sphere of influence. The collection includes examples of the Mig 15 trainer (NATO designation Mongol), MiG 17 (Fresco), MiG 19 (Farmer), Mig 21 (Fishbed) and Tu16 (Badger), together with an assortment of American and British aircraft.
Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport which connects the city with some other major cities in Indonesia, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bali, Makassar, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, and Pontianak. It also connects the city with Singapore (operated by Indonesia AirAsia) and Kuala Lumpur (operated by AirAsia and Malaysia Airlines).
The city is located on one of the two major railway lines across Java between Jakarta / Bandung and Surabaya. It has two passenger railway stations, Tugu Railway Station which serves business and executive class trains, and Lempuyangan Station which serves economy class trains. Both stations are located in the heart of the city.
The city has an extensive system of public city buses, and is a major destination for inter-city buses to elsewhere on Java or Bali, as well as taxis, andongs, and becaks. Motorbikes are by far the most commonly used personal transportation, but an increasing number of residents own automobiles.
Starting from early 2008, the city has operated a bus rapid transit system called Trans Jogja. This system is modeled after TransJakarta. But unlike Trans Jakarta, there is no particular lane for Trans Jogja buses, they run on main streets. Currently there are six lines of Trans Jogja service, with routes throughout main streets of Yogyakarta, which some overlap one another. The lines extend from Jombor bus station in the north as far as Giwangan main bus terminal in the south and Prambanan bus shelter in the east via Adisucipto International Airport. Trans Jogja has now become a new trademark of Yogyakarta and frequently used by local citizens and tourists alike.
In a recent forum discussion on long-term future transportation plans in Yogyakarta held in Universitas Gadjah Mada, Head of Yogyakarta region transportation master plan team, Prof Ahmad Munawar, said that, in 2016 various modern transport modes include monorail, aerobus, and tram will begin operating in the city and the region.
Yogyakarta features a tropical monsoon climate. The city features a lengthy wet season running from October until June and a short dry season that only covers the months of July, August and September. The city averages roughly 2200 mm of precipitation annually. Yogyakarta experiences particularly heavy rainfall from November through April. Temperatures remain relatively constant throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures at around 30 degrees Celsius and average lows at around 22 degrees Celsius.

Yogyakarta is the second most important tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. Most tourists come to Yogyakarta for its strong Javanese culture and tradition. This makes it prominent among other Javanese cities. Along with Surakarta or Solo, a city lying about 64 km to the east, Yogyakarta is the centre of Javanese culture.


Nama Resmi
:
Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogjakarta
Ibukota
:
Yogjakarta
Luas Wilayah 
:
3.133,15  Km²
Jumlah Penduduk 
:
3.876.391 Jiwa
Suku Bangsa 
:
Jawa,
Sunda Parahiyangan,
Melayu,
Cina,
Batak (Tapanuli), 
Minang Kabau,
Bali,
Madura,
dan Lain-lain.
Agama 
:
Islam : 3.084.990 Jiwa,  Kristen Protestan : 92.097 Jiwa, Kristen Katholik : 162.806 Jiwa, Budha : 5.387 Jiwa, Hindu : 5.798 Jiwa.
Wilayah Administrasi
:
Kabupaten: 4
Kota: 1 
Kecamatan: 78, 
Kelurahan: 46, 
Desa : 392 
Lagu Daerah  
:
Pitik Tukung
Sinom



Sejarah
Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta merupakan gabungan dari dua wilayah Swapraja, yakni Kasultanan Jogjakarta dan Kadipaten Pakualaman. Kasultanan Jogjakarta Hadiningrat didirikan pada tahun 1755 oleh Pangeran Mangkubumi yang kemudian bergelar Sri Sultan Hangmengku Buwono I. Kadipaten Pakualaman didirikan pada tahun 1813 oleh Pangeran Noto Kusumo (saudara sultan Hangmengku Buwono II) yang kemudian bergelar Adipati Paku Alam I. Baik Kasultanan maupun Pakualaman diakui oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda sebagai Kerajaan yang berhak mengatur rumah tangganya sendiri.

Pada saat ini Keraton Jogjakarta dipimpin oleh Sri Paduka Sultan Hangmengku Buwono X dan Pura Pakualaman dipimpin oleh Sri Paku Alam IX. Keduanya memainkan peranan yang sangat menentukan di dalam memelihara nilai-nilai budaya dan adat istiadat Jawa dan merupakan pemersatu masyarakat Jogjakarta.




Arti Logo

Landasan Idiil Pancasila, digambarkan dengan bintang emas bersegi lima (Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa), tugu dan sayap mengembang (Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab), bulatan-bulatan berwarna merah dan putih (Persatuan Indonesia), ombak, batu penyangga saka guru/tugu (Kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmah kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan perwakilan), dan padi-kapas (Keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia).
17 bunga kapas, 8 daun kapas dan 45 butir padi, adalah lambang Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia.
Bulatan (golong) dan tugu berbentuk silinder (giling), adalah lambang tata kehidupan gotong royong.

Nilai-nilai keagamaan, pendidikan dan kebudayaan, digambarkan dengan bintang emas bersegi lima dan sekuntum bunga melati di puncak tugu. Bunga melati dan tugu yang mencapai bintang menggambarkan rasa sosial dengan pendidikan dan kebudayaan luhur serta ketaqwaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. Bunga melati yang sering digunakan dalam upacara sakral mengandung nilai seni, budaya dan religius.
Warna-warna merah putih yang dominan, serta tugu yang tegak, adalah lambang semangat perjuangan dan kepahlawanan tatanan “mirong? pada hiasan saka guru sebagai hiasan spesifik Yogyakarta, adalah lambang semangat membangun.
Sejarah terbentuknya Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta dilukiskan dengan sayap mengembang berbulu 9 helai di bagian luar dan 8 helai di bagian dalam, menggambarkan peranan Sri sultan Hangmengkubuwono IX dan Sri Paku alam VIII, yang pada tanggal 5 September 1945 mengeluarkan amanatnya untuk menggabungkan daerah Kasultanan Jogjakarta dan Kadipaten Pakualaman menjadi Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta.
Warna hijau tua dan hijau muda, adalah lambang keadaan alam Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta dilukiskan dengan karena ada bagian ngarai yang subur dan ada daerah perbukitan yang kering.
Candrasengkala / Suryasengkala terbaca dalam huruf jawa adalah lambang rasa Suka Ngesthi Praja, Yogyakarta Trus Mandhiri, yang artinya dengan berjuang penuh rasa optimisme membangun Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta untuk tegak selama-lamanya: rasa (6) suka (7) ngesthi (8) praja (1) tahun jawa 1876, Jogja (5) karta (4) trus (9) mandhiri (1) tahun masehi 1945, yaitu tahun de facto berdirinya Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta.
Tugu yang dilingkari dengan padi dan kapas, adalah lambang persatuan, adil dan makmur.
Ukiran, sungging dan prada yang indah, adalah lambang nilai-nilai peradaban yang luhur digambarkan secara menyeluruh berwujud.
Nilai Budaya
Upacara Labuhan
:
Parang Tritis, Parang Kusumo, Gunung Merapi, Gunung Lawu, dan Dlepih Kayangan
Upacara Grebeg
:
Grebeg Poso pada tanggal 1 Syawal, Grebeg Besar pada tanggal 10 Besar, Grebeg Mulud pada tanggal 12 Rabbiulawal
Upacara Saparan
:
Bulan Sapar di Gamping Sleman
Upacara Metri Desa (Bersih Desa)
:
Di semua desa di wilayah Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta



Falsafah masyarakat setempat

Dasar falsafah pembangunan daerah Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Jogjakarta (DIJ) adalah Hamemayu Hayuning Bawono, sebagai cita-cita luhur untuk menyempurnakan tata nilai kehidupan masyarakat Jogjakarta berdasarkan nilai budaya daerah yang perlu dilestarikan dan dikembangkan. Hamemayu Hayuning Bawono bermakna suatu filosofi kepemimpinan yang selalu mengupayakan peningkatan kesejahteraan rakyat dan mendorong terciptanya sikap serta perilaku hidup individu yang menekankan keselarasan dan keserasian antara sesama manusia, manusia dengan alam dan manusia dengan Illahi dalam melaksanakan hidup dan kehidupannya.
Hakikat budaya adalah hasil cipta, karsa dan rasa, yang diyakini masyarakat sebagai sesuatu yang benar dan indah. Demikian pula budaya Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, yang diyakini sebagai salah satu acuan dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Secara filosofis, budaya jawa, khususnya budaya Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat dapat digunakan sebagai sarana untuk mewujudkan masyarakat ayom, ayem, tata, titi tentrem, karto raharjo. Dengan perkataan lain, budaya tersebut akan bermuara pada masyarakat yang penuh dengan kedamaian, keamanan, keteraturan, dan sejahtera.
 Kabupaten Bantul terdiri dari 17 Kecamatan :
-          Bambang Lipuro
-          Banguntapan
-          Bantul
-          Dlingo
-          Imogiri
-          Jetis
-          Kasihan
-          Kretek
-          Pajangan
-          Pandak
-          Pleret
-          Pundong
-          Sanden
-          Sedayu
-          Sewon
-          Srandakan

Kabupaten Gunung Kidul terdiri dari 18 Kecamatan :
-          Gedang Sari
-          Girisubo
-          Karangmojo
-          Ngawen
-          Nglipar
-          Paliyan
-          Panggang
-          Patuk
-          Playen
-          Ponjong
-          Purwosari
-          Rongkop
-          Saptosari
-          Semanu
-          Semin
-          Tanjung sari
-          Tepus
-          Wonosari

Kota Yogyakarta terdiri  dari 14 kecamatan :
-          Danurejan
-          Gedong Tengen
-          Gondokusuman
-          Gondomanan
-          Jetis
-          Kota gede
-          Kraton
-          Mantrijeron
-          Mergangsan
-          Ngampilan
-          Pakualaman
-          Tegalrejo
-          Umbulhario
-          Wirobrajan

Kabupaten Kulon Progo terdiri dari 12 kecamatan:
-          Galur
-          Girimulyo
-          Kalibawang
-          Kokap
-          Lendah
-          Nanggulan
-          Panjatan
-          Pengasih
-          Samigaluh
-          Sentolo
-          Temon
-          Wates

Kabupaten Sleman terdiri dari 17 Kecamatan:
-          Berbah
-          Cangkringan
-          Depok
-          Gamping
-          Godean
-          Kalasan
-          Minggir
-          Mlati
-          Moyudan
-          Ngaglik
-          Ngemplak
-          Pakem
-          Prambanan
-          Seyegan
-          Sleman
-          Tempel
-          Turi

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